'Citizen Journalism'에 해당되는 글 3건

  1. 2009.08.31 Rebooting Korean Television 2.0 On the Web (76)
  2. 2009.07.08 Readers Answer En masse to OhmyNews' Appeal for Financial Contribution (65)
  3. 2009.03.31 Journalism As a Conversation (42)
Korea Technology Review2009.08.31 22:21


Is the recession boosting the television viewing? According to the Nielsen Co.'s "Three Screen Report" for the fourth quarter of 2008, the average American now watches more than 151 hours of TV a month, about five hours a day and up 3.6 percent from the 145 or so hours Americans reportedly watched in the same period last year.


Or the ubiquity of the screens left no option for the average American but more combined viewing of the television anywhere? In fact, the "Three Screen" in the report refers to televisions, computers and mobile phones, the three prime channels for the public today to enjoy the video content.

The trend towards ever increasing presence of the television among the contemporary media consumers is being replicated across the Pacific as well, in the bandwidth capital of the world.

In terms of its share of audience hours, network television has been on a downward trend in Korea for years, losing its ground to the Internet, cable television and other new media platforms. However, if you break down the share of the hot memes by tracking up to its original media source every day, a totally different picture emerges.

Roughly 70 to 80 percent of the daily hot queries in Naver, Korea's top search engine, is simply a regurgitation of the issues discussed earlier in the network television, defying the early optimism of the media pundits who envisioned that the Internet would offer an alternative channel in setting the key public agenda.

Scores of top bloggers that attract bulk of the Korean web traffic are like parasites, simply chewing juicy morsels of the entertainment news or celebrity gossips thrown from the television screen in their blog posts, hence amplifying the television's dominance on setting the national agenda. 

This is puzzling since media analysts have been unanimous in their projection that the proliferation of the Internet and the broadband network will inevitably chip away conventional TV time of an average Joe the couch potato. Television is here to stay, they predicted, but it would be reduced to the hum in the background, except being called upon occasionally in time of the national crisis to play the role of the spectacular media, providing common topic and synchronous conversation for the public. On the contrary, television is gaining back its strength as a leading synchronous media, boosted by the asynchronous reverberation of the Internet.

This is in stark contrast to the dire situation of many newspapers, that are not gaining new advertising dollars on the Net as they are losing the subscriptions in the brick-and-mortar front.

Television's unrelenting clout as the custodian of the society's shared conversation is even more pronounced in Korea, despite the full advance of the broadband Internet here for the past 10 years. Perhaps, Korea's centralized message dissemination system may have helped. The content produced in the network's Seoul station dominates the screens of almost 99 percent of regional affiliates, reaching as far a place as in Los Angeles, where there is a huge cluster of vibrant ethnic Korean community.

The resurgence of the television in Korea is largely indebted to the network's prescient decision to embrace the Web instead of fighting it. From the early days of the Internet, KBS, MBS and SBS, the top three television networks have been releasing almost all of their scheduled programs on the Web as video-on-demand. The networks opened up most of their regular programs for free on the Net, but even when they charged for some popular content, they almost always offered users an option to detour the pay wall in return for the participation in some co-promotion campaigns with the sponsors.


As the TV fans get addicted to the asynchronous viewing of the top network shows, however, they usually ended up paying hard cash to enjoy more high quality programs available in the high definition format. SBS, the top network station that has been consistently more enthusiastic than its competitors about the online content business, earned over KRW 43 billion (about US$40 mil) in revenue on the Web last year, whereas it grossed KRW 607 billion (about $570 mil) from its television arm.

Form follows function and the real time online interaction with the audience soon changes the program formats as well. So, it was not just additional revenue from its online platform that Korean television picked up from the Internet. The Web has transformed the network television by changing their production and programming practices from its core.

For starters, television station usually open up a dedicated program website complete with message board and other bells and whistles to capitalize on the viral power of the viewers. Korean networks start to air big budget mini-series or dramas when roughly one third of the production is completed at the time of the premiere. Producers earn some leeway this way to fine tune the story based on the online feedback. Many times, plot would change at the request of fans and some unpopular cast members would be ousted after overnight rating results are released. Sometimes finished tapes would be delivered to the master broadcasting room just a few minutes before an on-air hour. It is as-you-go production and post-production.

Production staff and stars are easily burned out in this tight production schedule but they can still capitalize on the last minute chance and save the dying show by constantly monitoring the feedback posted in the program's online message board. Some loyal fans would persuade less enthusiastic viewers who would otherwise watch weekend reruns to stick to the original show time as a way to cheer up producers and actors and lift the show rating.

As the networks cut down on the production budget with the looming financial crisis, product placement is emerging as a promising alternative to fill in the deficit. However, the fleeting exposure in the midst of the show fails to catch the attention of but a few sensitive eyes. The Web comes in squarely to connect the missing link here. Producers can direct viewers to look up the program homepage for more detailed information about the featured products, services and places. The asynchronous Web is complementing the synchronous experience of the television this way.

The mutually beneficial relationship between the television and the Web can go only so far as its core audience is willing to accept the Internet, however. No wonder MBC and SBS, whose core audience spans from in their 20s to 40s, the most Web-savvy cohorts, are striving much harder to make full use of the Internet, whereas KBS, with its core audience spanning from in their 40s to 60s, who are practically glued to the television, is not trying as hard.

Generally, the world's highest penetration of the Korea's broadband network has pushed stations to produce more interactive reality shows and engage in conversation with the viewers in otherwise traditional programs. Sometimes television screens would be streaming the live text messages at the bottom sent from the viewers. 

Space shattering and interactive nature of the Web has been a great boon especially for the radio. After all, radio was already a highly interactive media even before the birth of the Web thanks to the radio's extensive use of live telephone conversation with the listeners.

By incorporating the Web, MBC's MINI, its Internet radio and KBS's KONG are reaching the listeners from the far corners of the world, breaking down the traditional bound of the network constituency. And inevitably, some top radio shows have started to experiment with video streaming on the Web as well. In the future, radio show hosts may be judged by their looks as much as they are judged by their voice talent.

The rise of citizen journalism and the shifting landscape of the media leadership in the wake of Seoul's broadband revolution seemed to have signaled the demise of the television medium as we know it today. However, television has made a spectacular come back to the contemporary media scene and is suddenly relevant again by internalizing the hidden desire of the audience expressed on the Net.

If you are brave enough to look through the hype and zero in on the changing nature the audience, the Web will soon prove itself to be the network's best friend, not a foe. Still not convinced yet? Then come and visit the bandwidth of capital of the world and look for yourself how Korean networks have jump-started the TV 2.0 on the Web.
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Korea Technology Review2009.07.08 16:47


UPDATE:  Three days after OhmyNews asked its readers to join the site as supporters, some 1100 readers have confirmed their financial contribution so far, with 4015 pledging the commitment according to an online counter posted in the dedicated page. 

Mr. Oh's tactic is well known among some American advocacy media circles, notably Pat Robertson, a conservative Christian televangelists. Fund-raising as a means for supporting a media organization has traditionally been a favorite strategy of many partisan and religious media. 

You wouldn't believe it is a pure coincidence that Mr. Oh had attended classes on the media management in Regent University before he launched his citizen media venture in Korea. No wonder the most enthusiastic early participants so far seem to be liberal types frustrated with the overtly conservative policies of the incumbent government. It is doubtful if OhmyNews' direct appeal to readers for a financial commitment will be successfully emulated elsewhere if your media is serving the non-partisan general audience. 

On another note, OhmyNews International has published a partial translation of Mr. Oh's open letter to its readers. 

OhmyNews is eyeing up to 10,000 supporters to join the site by the year-end, realizing a financial turn around by then. It remains to be seen, however, if the current momentum will hold up even after the initial buzz and enthusiasm starts to dissipate.  


    
OhmyNews Hopes 100,000 Supporters Will Save It from the Financial Troubles 



OhmyNews, a pioneering Korean citizen journalism site, lost KRW500M or about US$400,000 this year alone, Oh Yeon-ho, the founder and CEO of OhmyNews disclosed in an open letter published on its news site Wednesday. And he fears it would lose more money as advertisers keep slashing marketing budget amid the global financial crisis. 

Mr. Oh believes, however, if 100,000 readers join OhmyNews as supporters, paying KRW10,000 a month, it would achieve its financial independence without necessarily relying on advertising dollars. 

"For a citizen media to remain healthy and preserve its editorial integrity, it will have to earn at least 50 percent of its income from the sales of content or paid subscriptions. Despite our best effort, OhmyNews still relies on advertisers for more than 70 percent of its revenue." 

Launched in 2000, two years before the Presidential election, OhmyNews quickly rose to prominence by providing a voice for young online readers and mostly liberal political groups. The site has been largely credited for the successful campaign of the reformist president Roh Moo-hyun. Roh killed himself last May in a shocking move that surprised his supporters and political adversaries alike. He had to endure mounting pressure form his opponents, while the attorney's office grilled him with a highly controversial investigation on his alleged slush fund scandal.  

OhmyNews has gradually lost its standing for the past couple of years, as competing citizen media platforms started to attract its core young Korean readers. The recent global financial meltdown was another blow to its shaky financial structure. 

Despite its dwindling status, however, OhmyNews still enjoys strong influence among young Korean readers interested in the politics, and during the massive candle light protest last year against the import of the potentially contaminated US beef, the site demonstrated that it can always bite back with a formidable force. 

Since its inception, OhmyNews has relied on citizen reporters for more than 70 percent of its news content it publishes. At the content side, the site has already achieved its editorial independence. Can OhmyNews pull off another miracle in the finance side as well and stand up again as a sustainable media business? For more updates and developing stories, stay tuned to Planet Size Brain.    


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Korea Technology Review2009.03.31 10:01
This article first appeared in Harvard Nieman Reports Volume 59 Number 4, Winter 2005. Jean K. Min at OhmyNews International provided the article for Harvard University.

In a surrealistic bout of fate, passengers on JetBlue 292 en route to New York were watching their aircraft broadcast live on the screens of the in-flight DirecTV. The pilot was attempting an emergency landing on the tarmac of the Los Angeles International Airport with its front landing gear, clipped at a wrong angle, jutting out of the fuselage. 

While millions of viewers in America alone watched this nail-biting drama, 140 passengers aboard the Airbus A320 found themselves the subject of live television news unfolding before their own eyes. 

"It was absolutely terrifying, actually. Seeing the events broadcast made it completely surreal and detached me from the event," said Zachary Mastoon in an interview with The Associated Press. "It became this television show I was inextricably linked to. It was no longer my situation, it was broadcast for everyone to see. It only exacerbated the situation and my fear."

A couple of NBC executives were also flying in the JetBlue plane and managed to set up a mobile phone call to report the situation back to NBC headquarters. What if the rest of the passengers were able to hook up to a high-speed wireless network and report the situation inside the aircraft back to a television station? Instead of watching their mile-high ordeal covered by someone else in a remote station, they would have been the ultimate producer of their own news, delivering the story to millions in real time, including on JetBlue's in-flight screens. 

Oh Yeon Ho having a brief staff meeting in OhmyNews newsroom
©2006 Kwon W.S
"Honey, I'm on OhmyNews!"

Citizen reporters of OhmyNews, a unique news organization in Korea, now number more than 41,000 and are no stranger to the sensation that comes from producing their own news. It is this transforming and empowering experience that attracts thousands of "citizen reporters" to OhmyNews every day. Kim Hye Won, a long time citizen reporter of OhmyNews, described her excitement when she found her story published on OhmyNews for the first time: "As soon as I saw my article with my name, Kim Hye Won, attached to it, my heart fluttered. A housewife who for the last 18 years has been caught up in housework raising her children has now become a reporter. This was possible thanks to the OhmyNews spirit of 'every citizen is a reporter.'"

For lots of angry young Korean "Netizens" who felt their voice was perennially ignored by the overwhelmingly conservative Korean mainstream media, OhmyNews was a godsend when it was launched in February 2000. They were angry because the mainstream media constantly manipulated the nation's important agenda in politics, the economy and society for their own taste and purpose.

Oh Yeon Ho, the founder of OhmyNews, left his job at a monthly magazine to test his ideas about this new form of journalism through the Internet. He deeply sympathized with these young Netizens in their anger against the mainstream media. In an interview with The New York Times in early 2003, Oh hinted that a part of his motivation in launching OhmyNews was to fix this skewed Korean news market: "We have a real imbalance in our media-80 percent conservative and 20 percent liberal-and it needs to be corrected. My goal is 50-50." More recently Oh has written of his original vision that he "wanted to start a tradition free of newspaper company elitism where news was evaluated based on quality, regardless of whether it came from a major newspaper, a local reporter, an educated journalist or a neighborhood housewife….So I decided to make the plunge into the sea of the Internet, even though I feared that which was different from what I was accustomed."

Many young Koreans who were already sharing their thoughts on the Internet found that it made infinitely more sense to write for a news media with a strong national brand and formidable presence in the news market than scribble their anger in a puny blog. Goh Tae Jin, a citizen reporter turned cyber columnist shared his revelations about how he felt when his harshly critical piece appeared on OhmyNews in 2000. In it, he attacked one of the nation's top newspaper columnists for "factionalism and arrogance" that he'd exhibited in his column. "Unexpectedly, my article was chosen as the top story and suddenly sparked numerous heated opinions. It was an astounding experience for me to have for the first time in my life. On that day, OhmyNews transformed me from a reader into a reporter, true to its motto that 'every citizen is a reporter.'" 

Typical citizen reporters write a story or two per week. After submitting a story, they can track their status. Stories remain as "Saengnamu" articles before being accepted by OhmyNews copy editors. Once accepted, citizen reporters can follow the status of their words in real time, observing the number of readers' clicks into each of the stories, the number of comments, or the money collected in the "tip jar." 

The Audience is the Content

What happens on OhmyNews is an intensely interactive online conversation. Citizen reporters have to persuade OhmyNews' front-line copy editors to have their stories accepted in the first place. As much as 30 percent of daily submissions are rejected for various reasons such as poor sentence construction, factual errors, or its lack of news value. After stories are accepted and edited, then placed in a more prominent space, usually within minutes they draw scores of readers' feedback. When the story is controversial, as in the case of Goh's, the number of readers' comments can shoot up to hundreds and even thousands. 

This feedback from readers, coupled with editorial advice by OhmyNews' copy editors, gives citizen reporters invaluable lessons in writing. A quick online search through the OhmyNews database yields 500 to 600 stories for some of our diligent citizen reporters and the difference of quality between their first and more recent writing is remarkable. Nearly 70 OhmyNews citizen reporters now have contracts to write books. If you believe, as I do, that an adequate level of writing skills is an important ability for citizens to have in a civil democracy, then OhmyNews' citizen reporters can proudly be named the most capable practitioners of "the Emersonian vision of an expressive society."

The New York Times-and many other prominent news organizations-appear to consider the Web as simply another format in which to sell their news content. They sold the news once in the paper medium, now they will sell it again to an online audience and increase the return on their investment. For OhmyNews, the Web is seen neither as a channel for information flow nor as a pipeline for news delivery. It is a playground for our readers, a cyberspace for Netizens. 

In accepting this Internet vision, a whole new horizon opens for us. The readers, or news audience, are no longer passive consumers of news produced by a few privileged, arrogant reporters. They are active producers of the news they will consume at the end of the day. Participation in this great news sphere is realized for them either by joining OhmyNews as a citizen reporter or by participating in the online forum offered at the very bottom of every story we publish. 

Only as an afterthought did it dawn on us that the audience is the real content on the Web. Like any nimble disk jockey in a cool nightclub in town would do, we gave them a place to hang out and mingle in with the brightest minds in Korean cyberspace. One survey by a major Korean portal revealed nearly 40 percent of users' daily mouse clicks on it were for user-generated content, such as readers' comments and blog posts. A similar result was also found for OhmyNews. OhmyNews readers generate on average somewhere between 30 to 50 percent of daily traffic on the Web site through their participation in various online forums (other than their reading of the news). This is surely a wealth of eyeballs that any shrewd advertiser would salivate for. The "audience as the content" model makes a lot of sense for our business as well. 

Bloggers, Citizen Reporters and Journalists

For many, citizen participation on a news site seems identical to blogging. But while Weblogs stimulate colorful outpourings of citizens' voices on the web, most of time a blog is one-person operation and many bloggers are pursuing their journalistic passion at their own peril. Without adequate advice from trained journalists, they risk being ensnared into potential legal disputes involving, for example, a defamation case.

The OhmyNews model is fundamentally different. We believe bloggers can work better with professional assistance from trained journalists. On the other hand, we also believe professional journalists can expand their view and scope greatly with fresh input from citizen reporters. News media as a whole can offer more diverse and rich content to readers by tapping into the wealth of Netizens' collective wisdom.

Unlike Wikinews, which restricts their oversight role to a "janitor," OhmyNews works as a convener by actively promoting conversation among editors, citizen reporters and professional journalists. (We also, however, have a cyber janitor to clean up any mess that might be left in the aftermath of fierce online debate.) However, there seems to be a subtle division of roles between the OhmyNews staff reporters and citizen reporters. Citizen reporters understand that instead of copying the styles of trained journalists, they will shine brighter when they remain true to themselves. Citizen reporters excel when they write something they understand well and have a strong inkling for. 

No story is published before it goes through an extensive screening and copy editing process. Citizen reporters realize their edited text looks better with snazzy headlines and sometimes eye-catching thumbnail pictures. They also find their stories more polished after proofreading and editorial retouching by professionals, even if they occasionally face frustrating rejections of their stories. 

A recurring fear among journalists is that the coming age of citizen journalism would signal the end of "journalism as a serious profession." On the contrary, the OhmyNews experience shows that trained journalists will be in greater demand as an increasing number of "citizen journalists" start to produce explosive amounts of news themselves. Alas, if only journalists would understand how to reinvent themselves in this age of citizen journalism! 

OhmyNews editors spend a lot of time educating aspiring citizen journalists. We regularly invite them to our news room and give them "Journalism 101" classes. We encourage them to keep keen eyes on things going on and give advice that, if properly applied, would enhance the visibility of their writing as a means of effective communication. 

Harnessing Collective Intelligence

Recently, OhmyNews opened a new service feature in which our readers can participate in the editorial process by voting for their favorite writers or stories. OhmyNews servers collect the data and sort out the stories according to the number of votes each received. If we can define the first generation OhmyNews as "a massively distributed collaborative news operation on the Web," OhmyNews 2.0 can be described as "a massively distributed collaborative editorial participation on the Web." For example, when citizen reporters set up their personal blog site in OhmyNews, we encourage them to become an editor for their own edition of OhmyNews. They can drag and drop any of the few hundred stories available on OhmyNews each day to build their personal edition. Now every citizen can be an editor at OhmyNews. 

In OhmyNews 1.0, we tried to bridge the gap between pros and amateurs by introducing "journalism as a conversation" as opposed to "journalism as a lecture." OhmyNews 2.0 will continue to evolve with the development of more Web tools that will help us to harness the collective intelligence of Netizens on a global scale.
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